Friday, February 13, 2015

A night stand

For awhile now, I have felt like I should be working on a project of my own in this shop, but I keep getting hung up on the design process. I know that I love the process of building things, but I struggle with choosing and beginning projects.  First of all, I don’t have a lot of ideas flowing out of my brain about what kind of furniture I want to build, and it’s often difficult for me to know whether I like something even after it is finished, let alone only a drawing. But a greater obstacle than just coming up with a concept, is that the actual design process requires an intense amount of work. One has not only to draw out what the piece looks like, but also to figure out how to create each of the parts and how those parts will come together in the end. And when Heinz says figure it out, he means figure it out completely, and draw the whole piece in full scale, accurately and precisely, and all the joints, and the spacing for your dovetails, etc. etc.  So before I even touch a piece of wood, the whole thing has to be planned out. Fully planned out. That's a LOT of planning. And drawing. Neatly.
So in order to make this whole process of beginning a project slightly less daunting, I decided to try to copy a piece of furniture that already exists. (Another wise old woodworker that I know has told me several times that the way to learn to so something is by copying someone else’s work.) I have known since I moved into my room last April that I wanted to build a night stand, and I went through a phase of scouring the internet for inspiration a few months back. There was one design by a place called City Joinery in Brooklyn (I like a lot of their stuff) that I kept coming back to and comparing all of my ideas to. It was a piece that I knew that I liked, so I decided to figure out how it was made, choose my proportions and get building—well drawing.
This is a picture of the ORIGINAL. (I did NOT build this one)
After drawing it in full scale, and figuring out how the legs and shelf and panels all come together, Heinz told me to make a test leg, so that I could work on the joint where the shelf comes in, and figure out how to taper the leg. The piece of poplar that I milled out was bigger than I needed for just one leg, so I made all four, and then decided that I might as well make the whole piece out of poplar (to be painted in the end, rather than stained) so that I would have a chance to “practice” and work all the kinks out before I used some nice material like walnut or cherry. And thus I began building it.

The Building Process

Legs and shelf
Although the final shape of the legs involves a distinct taper, it was necessary to keep them square for as long as possible for the purposes of measuring, clamping, and keeping my lines square. I created a router jig in order to cut the mortise in the leg, and then created the tenon on the corner of the shelf by hand. 
Next I made another router jig, this one for the grooves into which my side and back panels would slide.
jig for mortises
practice joint
fitting the shelf, side panel and leg with groove
The last step on the legs for now was the shape of curve at the top. I had traced the shape of my legs onto the stock, and so I made two cuts on the band saw in order to get close to my lines, and then I shaved them down with a spoke shave and then sanded to the final shape.
legs after being band sawed (right) and shaved and sanded (left)

Side and back panels
The side panels slide into a groove in the bottom of the shelf as well as into the legs. I realized later that the groove in the shelf was much too deep and close to the outside, so I was left with fragile end grain that chipped off as I was assembling the piece. This is an aspect I will change in my next version.
broken off piece of fragile end grain
I used the dato blade in the table saw to create the tenons on the side panels that fit into these grooves. When I finally put these together, the table was much more stable, but was still lacking some bracing in the front. So here is a cross piece that I attached with sliding dovetails so that the front of the cabinet was stable.
assembled without back panel

assembled with back panel and cross piece in front
The Drawers
Next, we have a long pause in progress. I finally, more than two years after picking up my first chisel, I am faced with what some consider the quintessential test of one’s fine woodworking abilities. One that I have barely dabbled in, and never come close to perfecting or displaying.
Da da daaaaa
one of my first
some more practice half-blind dovetails
Haha. So I took a couple days off from working on my piece in order to practice this skill, which involves a lot of sawing and chiseling. Over three or four days I got slowly but surely better at splitting my lines, marking my second piece accurately and precisely, and chiseling cleanly and squarely.
final drawer, not too shabby (admittedly my tightest joint)
In the end, the practice was worth it, and my final drawers look pretty good. Although I made the first one wrong-- the correct layout allows the piece of plywood that composes the bottom of the drawer to be slid in and out even after the drawer is glued up. It is good to know that my second attempt at this piece of furniture will be so much nicer than my first attempt.
correct layout of a dovetail drawer with plywood bottom
I attached some drawer slides into the body of the night stand, and had quite a time of routing out the grooves in the drawers to match that height. First, I did some math wrong (adding instead of subtracting) so I grooved the drawer too high and it didn’t fit in, so I had to move the drawer slide. Then my jig moved as I was using the router, because I didn’t clamp it well enough (twice! Yikes!). Then on the bottom drawer I didn’t mark on which side of my line I was supposed route, and so again had to move the slide when I realized I had made the groove three quarters of an inch too high. But in the end, they fit in, and the gap around and between the drawers is uniform from the outside, and that is what is important. 
bottom drawer sliding out
Adding some shape and style
Now that all my individual parts were done (other than the very top, which I was in the process of gluing up but will not be added until the last step), it was time for the fun part: adding some shape and curves. Taking inspiration from the original piece, I shaved the corner of the front edge of the shelf with a block plane, taking away more in the center and less on the edges, creating the illusion of a curve on the bottom of the shelf. I did the same thing on the bottom of the top drawer, and then used a gauge chisel to carve out the section where my drawer handles will go. 
drawers with shape
what the handles will look like
And then the moment I had been waiting for since I began this “practice piece:” Tapering the legs! Oh but before I tapered them I had one final step, which was to drill the holes in the tops so that I can insert dowels to attach the top in the end.
Here is my jig to taper these on the table saw. It worked spectacularly, and below are photos of the night stand before and after the tapering.
jig for tapering legs

before leg tapering
after leg tapering
After sanding all the pieces it was time to assemble. The bottom of the table had to be glued up before I could mark the table top, since the placement of the dowels that attach the top to the legs is liable to change when the whole thing gets glued and clamped.
parts before gluing

glued up body

It's getting there

The next thing I did to finish the construction was create the scalloped corners of the top, which I did with a series of gouges, and then to dowel and glue it on. As soon as I glued it, it occurred to me that it would be much harder to paint now, and it was. I had to cut the handle off of a brush in order to just barely be able to paint. 

But before I painted it, I also made handles for the drawers. First, I had to create the mortise in the drawer front where I would attach the handle. To do this, I made another jig for the router and used a dovetail bit so that the handles would be wedged in and not solely held by glue. I then cut my handles out of walnut, to fit into the mortises I had made. I carved the handles with gouges so that they feel good to use as handles. 
jig for mortising handle in

Close up of handles before they were glued in

Finally, it was time to paint. After some thought, I chose a dark blue color that I thought would be appropriately subtle and classy. A coat of primer and two coats of paint on the outside, and a clear-coat of polyurethane on the inside of the body and the drawers.
And here's the final product!

Tuesday, October 28, 2014

Benches find a home

by Elisabeth

Well, now that my benches are out in the world, I suppose it is finally time to tell the story of the project that I started in March after finishing my swan bowl, that is, a pair of benches that I finished just in time to display at Jazz Fest. After their glorious debut at our Jazz fest tent:
Girls sitting on the bench at jazz fest

they sat around the workshop for awhile, waiting to be used as saw horses, which was the intended fate for this first piece of “apprenticeship” furniture that I made. They turned out pretty nice though, so it seemed a pity to use them in such a way. Consequently, they mostly just sat under a table, occasionally being used as the site for my afternoon nap. 
That is, until a few weeks ago, when a friend told us that he had a friend who was about to start up (and furnish) a new Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu gym in Metarie, and consequently was in the market for benches.
I took the opportunity to learn router based inlay techniques, and personalize the once-neglected benches with the NOLA cross that the Nola BJJ gyms use as their logo.
the final benches

They will now be used by students of Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu getting ready for class!
But let’s go back to the beginning of the story which takes place in early April.

The creation process:
The first step to creating a new piece of furniture is the design process. I was told to take inspiration from  a bench that was made in the shop a couple of years ago, so I knew the general joinery that I was going to use. The real design question involved the profile of the ends/legs of the bench. I knew there would be a shelf partway up that stretched the length of the bench, and that the sides needed to be straight at that point, because of the way the cross pieces joined with the legs.
So I started drawing shapes. I drew a couple, and I didn’t like them. I drew another one, and thought, “Ok; That’s alright,” showed Heinz, and was told “where are you going to put the shelf. That looks weird there, do you actually like how that looks?” So I drew some more shapes. Then he said, “why is it so wide? That’s too wide for a bench. And the legs can’t stick out down there; people will trip.” So I drew more, and he said “The shelf is too high. You know you don’t HAVE to have a straight section for the shelf. It’s just easier that way. It doesn’t have to be just like the other bench.” And I was like, why didn’t you say that? And he said “it’s all part of the design process,” or some wise words like those. So I went home and just sat down and drew something like thirty different profiles and came back to ask Heinz and Patrick for their opinions. 
brainstorming sheet
I found one that I liked and that got the OK from both of them, drew it out full size, and after a little more tweaking, I had decided on my profile. 

Building the bench
The legs/ end pieces:
After deciding on a design, the next stop was the creation of that template, so that I could create four identical end pieces. I traced my final drawing from velum paper onto MDF, cut it out on the bandsaw, and then sanded the edges exactly to the line, so that the piece was symmetrical and all the curves were smooth.
my template

Next, I traced that onto a piece of European Beech that I had machined earlier, and again used the bandsaw to cut it out roughly. Then, I screwed the piece of beech and the MDF together, and used a flush cut bit on the router table to trim the edges of the beech exactly in line (flush) with the MDF template. Then repeated that four times.
Once those were cut to the right shape, I needed to create a way to join them with the top. Heinz used his shaper to cut a long tenon at the correct angle in the top of those pieces, so that I could cut out my tenons from that starting point.
end piece with the one long tenon

During this process, I got a lot better at sawing straight and to the line. Because the farther the initial saw kerf from my final line, the more I had to pare away with the chisel. (Heinz says: “you realize that when you cut that far from the line you are doing twice as much work.”) It’s scary to cut close though, when you are not yet very skilled and don’t want to hit your line…
me using a chisel to bring the tenon to the line

tenon cut out with saw, before chisel work
The top:
The next step was to machine out a piece of wood for the bench part of the bench and cut the mortises to fit the leg tenons. After machining my piece to its final dimensions, I traced the shapes of the tenons onto the bench top and started chopping out mortises. I started by drilling some of the material out and then used a mallet and chisel to bring it to the line. 
roughly drilled holes

finished mortises?

next step
It took me quite a long time to get those babies to fit in, but finally…
and the legs fit into the top!

Once they all fit together, I used the router and a round-over bit to round the edges of my bench top so that they were nice and smooth and not painful to sit on.
Side rails:
The next step was to add some support so that the legs would not collapse outward in the event of someone actually sitting on the bench, so I made two rails and attached them using dovetail tenons, the shape of which serves to pull the legs back in towards each other.
bench with one side rail

Cutting this joint also took me a long time, the first couple especially, as I was being extra cautious with my initial saw cuts.
dovetail mortise and tenon

The shelf:
Now that my benches fit together, the final step before gluing them up was to add a shelf. So I cut datos in the rails (making sure to stop before the end of the piece so that it wouldn’t be visible from the end of the bench), and cut a plywood shelf to fit. 
Gluing my bench together was a stressful process, but we did a dry run and then with a little help from Patrick, a hammer and a wooden pounding block, it all came together. 
The glue-up

My finishing touch was to pound in some wedges into saw kerfs that I had cut in my tenons in order to hold them fast into the bench top (so that it wasn’t depending on the glue to stay together).
wedges made of rosewood and mahogany
wedges glued in

Finished tenons with wedges

At that point, I thought I was almost done. All I had left was sanding and finishing.
sanding the pieces before assembly
However, sanding takes a long time. I had to sand all of the pieces with the random orbital sander before assembling the bench, and then I had to sand the joints in all the places where it was uneven after being assembled, and to break any sharp edges so that they were nicer to touch and less prone to being dented if bumped. Then I applied a finish of polyurethane using a rag to wipe it on. After the first coat had dried, I sanded the entire bench again by hand with 320 grit sandpaper, and applied another coat. Then I sanded again and applied a third coat.
And then they were finished! And that was how my benches went to jazz fest.
side rail detail
Finished benches, version 1

The customization/ inlay
The process of making the inlay was quite simple, but it required a lot of practice on a new tool, the scroll saw, before I dared start on my final product.
Once I felt confident enough to begin, the first step was to draw out the design of my inlay. I traced it onto the bench using carbon paper, and then used a small router to follow that pattern and create a void in that shape about an eighth of an inch deep.
the "void" made with the router

The next step was to trace the shapes that I had cut out of the bench so that I could cut out shapes to fit into those spaces, sort of like puzzle pieces. I traced them onto some dark green poplar that was slightly thicker than my eighth-inch-deep void.
the puzzle piece fitting
It was very important for this process to cut exactly ON the line with my tiny scroll saw blade (By the way, I broke about 20 of these little brittle blades, not exaggerating), so that minimal sanding was required in order to fit them in, because it turns out it takes a VERY LONG time to sand a piece to fit when it is that is that intricate and delicate, especially if there are several areas where the fit is not good.
Once the pieces all seemed like they were going to fit, I applied some white glue, pushed them in, and clamped the whole thing in place.
gluing the pieces in

after the glue-up

Next I planed and scraped the inlay it flush, and then scraped the finish off of the top of the bench, and sanded and finished them both all over again (again, this part took much longer than I expected).
scraped planed and finished

finished benches version 2
And that is the simple story of how my benches were designed, created, and sent out into the world. Thanks for reading!